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Popular science: what are the terminology of functional clothing

May. 12, 2022
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一、foaming coating technology

Foam coating technology has recently developed. Recent research in India shows that the heat resistance of textile materials is achieved mainly through the large amount of air trapped in porous structures. To improve the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyurethane (PU) coating on the heat resistance of textiles, as long as add some foaming agent in the coating prescription, the researchers said, PVC foaming agent used in the coating more efficient than the PU coating, it is formed by foaming agent in PVC coating effectively closed air layer, on the surface of the adjacent heat loss reduce 10% to 15%.

二、Organosilicon finishing technology

The best silicone coating can improve the tear resistance of the fabric by more than 50%. The silicone elastomer coating has high flexibility and low modulus of elasticity, allowing the yarn to migrate and form a yarn bundle when the fabric tears. The tearing strength of general fabrics is always lower than the tensile strength. When coated, however, the yarn can be moved at the tear extension point, with two or more yarns pushing against each other to form a bundle that significantly improves tear resistance.

The silicone coating creates a water-repellent effect so that the fabric does not absorb too much moisture, preventing a heavy increase in the wet-effect. The silicone rubber layer can filter out most of the harmful ultraviolet rays of sunlight, and feel soft. Silicone coating is now used in airbag fabrics, hot air balloons, paragliders, spinnaker, tents, sleeping bags, and many high-performance sportswear fabrics.

三、Waterproof oil repellent finishing technology

The surface of lotus leaf is a regular microstructural surface, which can prevent droplets from wetting the surface. The microstructure traps air between the droplet and the surface of the lotus leaf. Lotus leaves have a natural self-cleaning effect, that is, super protective. The Northwest Textile Research Center in Germany is using the potential generated by pulsed UV lasers to try to mimic this surface. The fiber surface is photon treated with pulsed UV laser (excited state laser) to produce a regular micron-scale structure.

If modified in gaseous or liquid active medium, photon treatment can be carried out simultaneously with hydrophobic or oil-phobic finishing. In the presence of perfluorine-4-methyl-2-pentene, the terminal hydrophobic groups can be bonded by irradiation. Further research work is to optimize the surface roughness of the modified fibers as much as possible and combine the appropriate hydrophobic/oleophobic groups to obtain super protective properties. This self-cleaning effect, coupled with the fact that it requires less maintenance, has great potential for application in high-tech fabrics.

四、Antibacterial finishing technology

The existing antibacterial finishing has a wide range, and its basic modes of action are: action with cell membrane, action in the process of metabolism or action in the core material. Oxidants such as acetaldehydes, halogens, and peroxides attack the cell membrane of microorganisms or penetrate the cytoplasm, acting on their enzymes. As a coagulant, fatty alcohol irreversibly denatures the protein structure in microorganisms.

Deacetylated chitin is a cheap and readily available antibacterial agent. The protonated amino group in the deacetylated chitin can bond to negatively charged bacterial cell surfaces and inhibit bacteria.Other compounds, such as halides and iso-triazane peroxides, are highly reactive radicals because they contain a free electron. Quaternary ammonium compounds, biguidine and gluconin exhibit special polycationic, porous and absorptive properties.When applied to textile fibers, these antimicrobial chemicals bind to the cell membranes of microorganisms, causing the structure of the oil-phobic polysaccharides to break, ultimately leading to cell membrane punctures and cell rupture. Silver compounds are used because their complexing action prevents microbial metabolism. However, silver is more effective against negative bacteria than positive bacteria, but less effective against fungi.

五、Anti felt shrinkage finishing of worsted fabrics

With the increasing awareness of environmental protection, the traditional finishing method of chlorine-proof mat is being limited and will be replaced by non-chlorine-containing finishing technology. Non-chlorine oxidation, plasma technology and enzyme treatment will be the inevitable trend of wool shrinkproof finishing in the future.

六、Multi-functional composite finishing technology for textiles

At present, the multi-functional composite finishing makes the textile products develop towards the deep and high-grade direction, which can not only overcome the shortcomings of the textile itself, but also give the textile multi-function. Multi-functional composite finishing is to compound two or more functions in a textile technology to improve the grade and added value of the product.

The technology has been used more and more in finishing of cotton, wool, silk, chemical fiber, composite and blended interleaved materials.

For example: wrinkle-free ironing/enzyme washing composite finishing, wrinkle-free ironing/decontamination composite finishing, wrinkle-free ironing/anti-staining composite finishing, so that the fabric on the basis of wrinkle-free ironing and added new functions; Uv-resistant and anti-bacterial fibers used in swimwear, mountaineering wear and T-shirts; Fiber with waterproof, moisture permeable, antibacterial function, can be used for comfort underwear; Anti-uv, anti-infrared and anti-bacterial (cool, anti-bacterial type) fibers can be used for high-performance sportswear, leisure wear, etc. At the same time, the application of nanomaterials to cotton or cotton/chemical fiber blended fabric after finishing a variety of functions, is also a development trend in the future.

Source: NTMT New Textile materials

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